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In vitro fertilisation – or IVF – has allowed many couples with fertility issues to conceive. However, the relationships between different types of infertility and IVF outcomes are not yet fully understood. Male infertility can include non‐obstructive azoospermia, where sperm are not present in the ejaculate, and oligozoospermia, also known as a ‘low sperm count’. Men with these conditions can still have biological children through techniques such as surgical retrieval of sperm from the testes, in the case of azoospermia, and subsequent injection of an individual sperm into an egg cell. Identifying the effects of male infertility phenomena on subsequent IVF and pregnancy outcomes is important, so that couples can make informed decisions.
While antibiotics are an essential tool for treating disease, their effectiveness in preventing severe illness and death is under threat. Antibiotic resistance is now one of the biggest dangers to global health. When a bacterial infection is treated with antibiotics, certain bacteria in a patient may hold genetic mutations that allow them to evade destruction. These resistant bacteria can become more severe and spread further, requiring stronger antibiotics or potentially leading to the patient’s death. Around 5 million deaths were related to antibiotic resistance in 2019 alone, and cases are predicted to rise.
Dr Kerstin Kleinschmidt-Doerr | Could R399E Become a Potential Treatment for Restoring Joints and Relieving Pain in Osteoarthritis?
Osteoarthritis is a painful and debilitating condition that affects hundreds of millions of people. The condition significantly affects a patient’s mobility, sleep, and ability to work, ultimately impacting their quality of life and mental health. Treatments involve exercise or medication to reduce pain, but they don’t target underlying structural problems in the joints. Additionally, these treatments do not slow or stop the progression of the disease, and may have serious side-effects on organs such as the liver, kidneys or heart. The search for a treatment that can reduce osteoarthritis pain and treat the affected joint structures remains a ‘substantial unmet medical need’.
Modern medicine has greatly extended our life expectancy. However, elderly people tend to experience many health issues, leading to significant suffering and a greater need for healthcare services. As such, it is important to find new ways to increase the number of years that we remain healthy into old age. One simple way to achieve this is to develop treatments that are specifically designed to reduce or reverse some of the biochemical hallmarks of aging.
Bartonella bacteria, which hide in blood, skin, and many other tissues, are known to contribute to a diverse range of human diseases, with symptoms including with symptoms including – but not limited to – swollen lymph nodes, joint and back pain, skin lesions, weakness, headache, dizziness, cardiac conditions and psychiatric symptoms. Humans are exposed to Bartonella through contact with fleas, lice, sand flies, deer flies, possibly mites, spiders and ticks, and bites from infected animals.
Dr Thomas Shaffer – Dr Tariq Rahman | pneuRIP: An Innovative New Technology to Monitor Children’s Breathing
Respiratory inductive plethysmography (RIP) is a technique used to monitor a patient’s breathing patterns. It is used for diagnosing and monitoring children with lung disease, and assessing the effectiveness of therapies. Using bands placed around the torso, the technique measures volume changes in the abdomen and ribcage. These measurements are then translated into useful indicators of lung health. Dr Thomas Shaffer and Dr Tariq Rahman at Nemours Children’s Hospital in Delaware have developed a new technology called pneuRIPTM, which allows continuous, real-time monitoring using RIP.
Dr Beate Aurich | Identifying, Understanding and Managing Treatment-Related Risks of Medicines Prescribed to Children
Pharmacovigilance is the continuous process of detecting, assessing, understanding, preventing and managing treatment-related risks throughout the life cycle of medicinal products.
After the amputation of a lower limb, amputees can learn to walk with an artificial replacement for that limb known as a prosthesis. This can be challenging, however, due to the loss of somatosensory information such as the perception of touch and pressure coming from the foot. For the majority of amputees, their lost limb can still be perceived through a phenomenon known as phantom limb, in which a painless tingling or a warm sensation is often felt where the limb used to be.
Electromagnetic hypersensitivity, or EHS, is a condition in which individuals experience a variety of symptoms from non-ionising electromagnetic radiation. Such radiation includes Wi-Fi and mobile phone signals. A scientific consensus international report by 32 experts argues that there is sufficient evidence for electromagnetic hypersensitivity to be acknowledged as a distinct neuropathological disorder. However, some scientists still only accept the adverse ‘thermal effects’ of non-ionising electromagnetic radiation, such as a rise in body temperature. Such scientists confuse instances of electromagnetic hypersensitivity with a psychological fear of electromagnetic devices.
Dr. Vladimir I. Vladimirov | Uncovering the Genetic and Molecular Underpinnings of Psychiatric Disorders
Over the past decade or so, researchers have conducted several large-scale genetic studies employing hundreds of thousands of patients, to identify genetic variants associated with psychiatric disorders. However, very few studies have explored how these genetic variants impact molecular processes in the brain, leading to the development of various psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, major depression, or alcohol addiction.
All animals harbor a wide range of microbes, including bacteria and fungi. In the human body, microbial cells outnumber human cells by 10 to 1! Interactions between microbes affect many physiological processes within the body, including metabolism, digestion, immunity and the production of vitamins. For instance, many beneficial microbes can suppress the growth of harmful microbes within the gut. If these microbial interactions become disrupted, we can be at a greater risk of developing various diseases.
We are pleased to be joined by Dorothy Achu, Regional Malaria Adviser, WHO African Region; Aimable Mbituyumuremyi, Director, National Malaria Control Program, Ministry of Health, Rwanda; Adam Aspinall, Senior Director, Access and Product Management, and George Jagoe, Executive Vice-President Medicines for Malaria Venture. To learn about antimalarial drug resistance in Africa to ensure patients can continue to be saved.
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