Social and Behavioural
Explore Social and Behavioural
Human Services Research Institute | Enhancing the Well-being of Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
Intellectual and developmental disabilities, or IDD for short, are associated with conditions such as Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome, and autism spectrum disorder. People with these conditions may require supports to communicate with others, learn new things, live independently, or socialize. While there are many interventions that support people with IDD, the potential effects of these interventions on well-being are not fully understood.
Dr Gavin Ward | A Level Playing Field? Understanding Racism and Racial Inequality in British University Sport
Racial inequalities exist in most social institutions. This challenges the common narrative that we live in a ‘post-racial’ era. The way in which racism plays out in both higher education and sport has long interested scholars. Higher education is increasingly under pressure to address issues of equity and inclusion. In sport, experiences of racial inequality and abuse are reported by athletes, coaches and spectators. University sport sits at the intersection of both higher education and sport, providing a useful context for academics to explore how racism is experienced within institutions.
The concept of consciousness extends beyond mere philosophical pondering. Scientists are currently exploring how conscious experience emerges from electrochemical processes within the brain. Unraveling this mystery holds significant implications for brain health, encompassing phenomena such as comas, surgical anesthesia, and the altered perceptions observed in schizophrenia. Emerging research indicates that consciousness is not localized to a single brain region, but rather arises as a result of network interactions. Understanding the intricate connections between brain regions that contribute to consciousness has remained a challenging endeavor.
Dr Nesibe Kantar – Professor Terrell Ward Bynum | Which Ethical Values Should Be Instilled into Artificial Intelligence?
Technological and scientific advancements have always come with ethical and social consequences. This remains true today, as artificial intelligence is rapidly and radically changing the way we think about the world. Seven decades ago, while creating the field of cybernetics, scientist-philosopher Norbert Wiener first asked: Which ethical values and principles should be instilled into machines that learn and make decisions?
Professor Zhuoyi Wang | What Can the Compromised Progress of the Mulan Remake Tell Us About Cross-cultural Filmmaking?
In 1998, Disney released Mulan, an animated take on a Chinese legend. The film tells the story of Mulan, a girl who impersonates a man to join the army. She shows bravery as she fights to save her kingdom. At the time, this was a breakthrough for Disney due to its positive portrayal of Chinese characters and strong women. Nevertheless, the film included many gender stereotypes and instances of cultural appropriation. In 2020, a live action remake of Mulan was released. Directed by feminist filmmaker Niki Caro, it aimed to be gender progressive and culturally appropriate. However, critics argued that it misrepresented Chinese culture, and perpetuated ethnic stereotypes. Given that the film tried to avoid these pitfalls, how did this happen?
Clinical trials are the main way for scientists and doctors to test whether new treatments, such as drugs or devices, are safe and effective. Because of their pivotal importance in influencing treatment options and patient care, clinical trials must be conducted to the highest standards. For drugs, this means they are required to be proven safe and effective before they can gain government approval.
Occupational safety & health is a field that assesses hazards in workplace settings. It involves anticipating hazardous events that could harm workers, estimating the likelihood that an event will occur, and devising measures to prevent or mitigate harm. In this way, safety & health professionals help to greatly reduce the risk of injuries, illnesses and deaths.
Professor Simon Roberts | Why African Countries Experience High Food Prices and What We Can Do About It
African countries are facing huge challenges around the availability, cost, and quality of food. These countries are import-dependent and disproportionately affected by global price hikes, while many are also undergoing rapid urbanisation which increases demand. These problems need an effective response to ensure the provision of affordable, healthy food. Professor Simon Roberts and his colleagues at the University of Johannesburg recently explored why high food prices are found in African countries, and suggest urgent solutions for addressing food scarcity, instability, and unaffordability.
Our working memory can be described as a mental sticky note, where we hold bits of information for short periods of time. Working memory is an important function for everyday life, used for many tasks including following directions, holding conversations and solving problems of all kinds. Often, working memory – and problem-solving – can be improved by training.
Capitalism and neoliberalism influence how children are schooled in the USA. American schools have standardised performance measures that teachers and students are expected to meet, which tend to prioritise: conformity, good grades and workforce readiness. They do not support students to develop identities, form good relationships, collaborate, or innovate. The result is an education system that undervalues care and community, which is at odds with the vision of raising compassionate young people. In a recent paper, teachers Austina Lee and Gareth Dylan Smith explore how this can be challenged through ‘punk’ pedagogy. They use the case study of a high-school choir to demonstrate how their ideas can be put into practice.
Professor Nicholas Washmuth | Professor Richard Stephens – The Power of Words: Could Swearing Be a Useful Therapeutic Tool for Physiotherapists?
Words change how people think, feel, and behave. As such, the words that medical professionals use have the potential to improve or worsen how patients feel. In physiotherapy, language may be just as important as physical interventions for achieving positive outcomes. So, what about swear words? While most of us swear sometimes and taboo words have been around since language emerged, their potential benefits are often ignored due to controversy and negative associations. Professors Nicholas Washmuth and Richard Stephens argue we should change this. In the right circumstances, they believe that swearing can significantly improve patient outcomes.
Child labour is a major social problem, particularly in developing countries. Recent reports estimate that globally, there are 160 million children engaged in child labour – representing an increase of 8.4 million in the last four years. Child labour is likely both a symptom and a cause of poverty. Not only do working children achieve lower levels of education, but their physical health can also be jeopardised. However, less is known about the psychological and mental health impacts.
Stay Up To Date With SciTube
Subscribe to receive our latest videos straight to your mailbox